# Did others believe it?

Posted: November 1st, 2022

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Problem 1.
The first example comes from a series of videos on racial biases. One of the videos, “The Life-Changing Power of Hanging Out,” contains a simple experiment . As you watch this video: http://nyti.ms/2hWaH4V (it’s less than 3 min)
a. In the opening minute, TV host Heather McGhee poses a theory about how to reduce racism to the caller. What is the theory? How did the researchers use data to test the theory?
b. What was the independent (manipulated) variable in the study? What was the dependent variable?
c. How do you know that the study was an experiment rather than a correlational study? Was it an independent-groups or within-groups design? Which of the four designs in Chapter 10 was it? (Posttest only? Prettest/posttest? Repeated measures? Concurrent measures?)
d. Sketch a graph of the result, labeling your axes mindfully. e. Do the results support the claim that “hanging out with a roommate of another race can reduce people’s prejudice”? Why or why not? (Provide a complete answer with all three criteria.) Problem 2.
This second example comes from a line of research on what makes people believe fake news or false stories. One example of a fake news story from the fall of 2016 was one that claimed that Pope Francis had endorsed Donald J. Trump for president. Did you encounter that story? If so, did you believe it? Did others believe it? Turns out that if people heard the story more than once, they’d be more likely to believe it. This lesson comes from experimental research described in this post by Professor Lisa Fazio, as well as this articleshe cites.
a. What was the independent (manipulated) variable in the study? What was the dependent variable?
b. Was this an independent-groups or within-groups design? Which of the four designs in Chapter 10 was it? How do you know? c. Sketch a graph of the result, labeling your axes mindfully. e. Do the results support the claim that “hearing a false statement more than once causes you to think it is more true”? Why or why not? (Provide a complete answer.) Problem 3.
The text for this problem comes from an NPR story, “What It Takes to Lift Families out of Poverty,” which I have quoted extensively at this link.
Question 1: What problem, introduced in Chapter 2, is being described in the passage quoted above?
Question 2: Was this study an experiment or a correlational study? Why? Question 3: What was the IV in the study? Was the IV independent groups or within groups? Question 4: There was more than one DV in this study. What were at least two of the DVs?
Question 5: What kind of experiment was this, according to the four types introduced in Chapter 10? Question 6: Pick one of the DVs you listed in Question 3, and sketch a graph of the results for that DV. Question 7: Can the study support the claim that “Giving families a livestock investment causes them to have more food to eat?”
Back to the study: The effect of the aid was actually quite small, she says. Families’ incomes and food consumption together went up by only a small amount—about 5 percent, on average, when compared with the control group.
Question 8: Which validity is the above comment addressing? REFERENCES
Fazio, Lisa. “Unbelievable News? Read It Again and You Might Think It’s True.” The Conversation, 29 Nov. 2017, bit.ly/2mZjEfM.
Dechêne, Alice, et al. “The Truth About the Truth: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Truth Effect.” SAGE Journals: Your Gateway to World-Class Journal Research, 18 Dec. 2009, dx.doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352251.
Doucleff, MICHAELEEN Michaeleen. “What It Takes To Lift Families Out Of Poverty.” NPR.org, 15 May 2015, n.pr/1QN6uvA.

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