Posted: December 8th, 2022
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Directions: select two prompts from the following questions. Write a response stating your position. Provide support
for you statement with reference to the main text (Armstrong), one or more of the bibliographic materials listed on
Cougar Courses, and/or other a peer-reviewed sources. Length: 500 words each.
1. In the Arrival of Religion (Ch.9) Armstrong states: “One of the characteristics of early modern thought was a
tendency to assume binary contrasts” … for example, “faith and reason, intellect and emotion, and church
and state” (p.258). How does this historical period (16th-17th century Europe) compare with contemporary
2. The Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), was fought for “various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial,
and commercial rivalries”. Literally, there were a “plenum of forces” in tension. Identify and discuss two
situations of a religious ritual being challenged or suppressed during this major conflict in European history.
3. What argument did Hobbes make regarding colonization and the genocide of Native Americans?Identify and
compare a contemporary example (ca. 20th – 21st century) with Hobbes’ notion.
4. Armstrong states that “in order to prosper under colonial rule, they would have to adapt to the Western
understanding of religion” (p.288). Compare this historical situation of India with that of American Indians.
How has the adaptation of Western religion served the latter? Consider transformations in ritual practices.
5. Identify and discuss two post slavery transformations in rituals of the Afro-Brazilian Candomblé (in Brazil).
See Blackness, Inequality and Religion the Case of Candomblé (Andreas Hofbauer)
6. What prompted the late 20th century migration of Brazilians to Germany? What were the most significant
transformations in Afro-Brazilian religious expression for these migrants?See Under the Berlin sky
Candomblé on German shores (Joana Bahia)
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